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№5/2015

 

Magazine «Engineering Geology» , 5/2015

 

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF PERMAFROST

Shamanova I.I.

Studying texture-forming ices at engineering surveys in permafrost areas ...6

The article discusses methods of studying texture-forming ices, shows features of the main types of cryogenic textures, presents a preferable classification of cryogenic textures of rock and loose deposits taking into account soil types, ice inclusions morphology, soil parameters which are mandatory for determination at engineering surveys in permafrost areas.

Key words: texture-forming ices; permafrost soils; ice content; engineering survey; classification of cryogenic textures; ice schlierens.

SOIL STUDIES

Voznesensky E.A.

Methodic issues of pore pressure control in laboratory soil testing ...14

Reliability of pore pressure measurements in laboratory (mostly triaxial) testing is discussed. It is demonstrated that pore pressure control in laboratory testing is complicated by two problems: uncomplete saturation of samples, porous stones and the system of pore pressure measurements and by finite pore water compressibility causing late measurements of the pore pressures at the ends of a sample compared to the real ones in the central part. Possible solutions of these difficulties are discussed.

Key words: pore pressure; triaxial test; saturated soils; unsaturated soils; effective stress; water compressibility; local measurements.

Konishchev V.N.

Loess soil: new opportunities of its genesis study ...22

The article describes a new approach to analysis of the genetic nature of mineral matter of loess soils. The proposed method is based on differential analysis of distribution of the main bedrock-forming minerals (quartz and feldspars) by the granulometric spectrum. The author proposes two criteria such as the cryogenic contrast coefficient and heavy minerals distribution coefficient which allow to determine the role of cryogenic processes, aeolian and water sedimentation in development of loess soils.

Key words: loess; granulometric composition; mineralogical composition; cryogenesis; cryolithozone; periglacial zone; historical-genetic approach.

Tarakanov A.I., Bykasov V.E.

Stalk-like ice of volcanogenic soils (by the example of Kamchatka) ...38

The paper shows that the processes accompanying formation and destruction of stalk-like ice are among the main factors of origin of such engineering-geological features of volcanogenic soils as their capability of intensive soaking, excessive heaving, flow under influence of solifluction, possibility of intensive transition into various aggregate states of the capillary and film water in them, and, therefore, capability of increased desintegration of such soils. The authors conclude that study of stalk-like ice and processes associated with its formation and thawing is of great practical interest in connection with wide involvement of areas of soil-pyroclastic covers into the sphere of economic development and promotes optimization of the construction industry work in areas of modern volcanic activity in Kamchatka, Kuril and Commander Islands and other regions of the Earth with occurrence of similar volcanogenic soils.

Key words: stalk-like ice; soil-pyroclastic cover; volcanogenic soils; solifluction; desintegration.

ENGINEERING GEODYNAMICS

Neshchetkin М.O.

Engineering-geological assessment of anhydrites hydration and sulphate rocks erosion in sulphate karst regions of river valleys ...46

The article considers engineering-geological assessment of anhydrites hydration and sulphate rocks erosion as the main criteria reflecting the depth and activity of sulphate karst in river valleys by the example of Oka-Volga interfluve (Nyzhniy Novgorod Region) and the Babka River valley (Kungur region, Perm Krai). The author thinks that for updating of the normative base it is advisable to review the requirements for engineeringgeological surveys in karst areas.

Key words: karst; erosion of sulphate rocks; hydration of anhydrites.

REGIONAL ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

Usenkov S.M, Gladysh V.A., Logvina E.A.

Lithodynamical and sedimentological studies in the southern part of the Taz Bay ...56

The main morphodynamic types of the shores of the Taz Bay (Tazovskaya Guba) were revealed. Characteristic features of the coastal zone geomorphology of the bay include extensive development of accumulative wind derelictions (dewaterings) and relatively poor development of thermal abrasion processes. The bottom deposits are mainly finesmall- grained sands and sandy aleurites. The main direction of sediments transport is from north-east to south-west that corresponds to wind waves in summer. Accumulative land forms in the form of lengthy low ridges of small amplitudes predominate at the bottom. Absence of ripple marks and low height of the underwater ridges indicate low intensity of transport and accumulation of does not influence on the dynamics of the bottom. The integrated analysis of the data makes it possible to consider the intensity of lithodynamic processes within the Yurkharovo Bay to be low.

Key words: Taz Bay (Tazovskaya Guba); lithodanamics; sedimentology; coastal morphodynamics; bottom sediments; accumulation; ice gouge.

Zdobin D.Yu., Verzhbitsky V.E., Khudoley A.K., Tuchkova M.I., Rogov M.A.

Composition and properties of bottom sediments of inlets of the Laptev Sea ...64

The article for the first time considers in detail the formation conditions of the modern deposits of the Morzhovaya and Otmelaya inlets of the Laptev Sea. Ideas on the modern polar sedimentogenesis in the concerned part of the Russian Arctic shelf are discussed on the basis of comprehensive analysis of the particle size distribution, mineral and chemical composition, physicochemical properties of the bottom silts.

Key words: shelf; Laptev Sea; inlets; bottom soils; silt; physicochemical properties; clay minerals; sedimentation conditions.

English abstracts ...73

 

 

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