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№2/2015

 

Magazine «GeoRisk» , 2/2015

 

Review of natural hazard events for The Second quarter of 2015

SHANINA V.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University ...6

 

Problems Of Genesis And Remote Usoi Dam Mapping

VASKOV I.M. North-Caucasian Mining and Metallurgical Institute (State Technical University) GOGICHEV R.R. North Ossetia-Alania, SKFFBU "TFGI the SFD" ...10

The article discusses the genesis of the landslide emergence, mechanism of formation of Usoi dam and its energy components in the light of previously known facts, as well as newly identified due to remote mapping. Influence of conditions of origin of the natural dam on its stability is also described.

Key words: Usoi collapse, Lake Sarez, the balance of volumes, energy landslide masses, lithological composition, mechanical properties, geodynamic setting

Slushflow In The South Of Sakhalin Island

GENSIOROVSKIY Y.V., BOBROVA D.A., ZHIRUEV S.P. Sakhalin Department of Far East Geological Institute, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences ...18

The paper presents the information about the formation of slushflow on the slopes of marine terraces on the south Sakhalin Island. We present the characteristics of the slushflow which was formed on the south-west coast of Sakhalin Island 8–9 April 2012. We describe the run-out distance of slushflow, and the factors of formation of slushflow on the slopes of the marine terraces of the southern part of the island. On the Sakhalin Island the main damage by slushflows is done as a result of blockage and erosion of highway and railroad bed. The slushflow run-out distance on the Sakhalin Island is much higher than the wet avalanche one is.

Key words: slushflow, marine terraces, factors of formation of slushflow, run-out distance of slushflow, Sakhalin.

Debris Flow Morpholithogenesis: Essence, Conditions, Factors And Mechanisms Of Its Formation

EFREMOV Y.V. The Kuban State University ...22

The mudflows have been studied by the department of geology and geomorphology of the Kuban State University for the last ten years with the use of a conceptual model of mudflow morpholitogenesis (ММLG). Тo date Experience material makes it possible to present the development SMLG, as follows: conditions — factors — processes — mechanisms of mudflows — a genetic type of mudflow. Developed MМLG theory opens the basic stages, their further change, accumulation of mineral and organic substance within their basins, and also allows to reveal various types of ММLG.

Key words: mudflow, mudflow morpholitogenesis, мudflow process conditions, factors, mechanisms, types of mudflow.

Evolution of The Debris-Flow Geosystem As Process of Self-Organization of The Ordered Structures

KAZAKOV N.A. Far East Geological Institute of Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Sakhalin Department) ...28

A debris-flow geosystems include: a debris-flow basin, a potential debris-flow massif (a massif of detrital loose rocks in debris-flow basin), debris-flow and a debris-flow deposits. It is the nonlinear system with the chaotic conduct. A debris-flow geosystem can be described as dissipative system in which consistently there is a self-organization of ordered structures: a spatially inhomogeneous structure (represented in the structure of a potential debris-flow massive), after — a temporal periodic structure (auto waves of potential debris-flow massive represented by the system) and then — a space-temporal periodic (a debris-flow).

Key words: debris-flows, debris-flow process, debris-flow geosystems, self-organization of ordered structures.

Steps of The Calculation and Design of Modern Rockfall Protection Structures

MARINICHEV M.B. Kuban State Agrarian University, «GEOTECH» LLC MAKUSHEVA A.V. Kuban State Agrarian University BARINOV A.Y. Geobrugg AG in Russia ...32

This paper provides an overview of traditional and modern engineering systems of rockfall protection. The main considerable parameters for the study of the rockfall process and for the design of structures against rockfall were analyzed. Steps of the calculation and worldwide experience of installation of flexible rockfall barriers have been described.

Key words: rockfall, structures against rockfall, flexible rockfall protection barriers, trajectory of rockfall, impact energy of rock.

The Use Of Structural Features Of Bottom Topography In Identifying Dangerous For Engineering Structures Seabed

SAZHNEVA A.E. Institute of Oceanology P.P. Shirshov RAS ...38

The article considers the possibility to reduce the time and resources when determining threat for engineering structures areas of the seabed through the use of the detected interferometric means side view of specific features of the fine structure of the terrain, characteristic of the seabed with geological setting that can bring harm to such structures and cause collateral damage. This assumes that further detailed studies will be conducted at the identified sites inclusively. Testing of this approach was carried out on the material of the Middle Caspian. In the Eastern and North-Western regions of the Middle Caspian identified local forms that are identified as mud volcanoes. Territories where they are assigned to areas with high risk. In the Northwest area on the surface of the lower part of the slope revealed the hollows are mainly V-shaped, small hills and valleys, which are related to the ancient relics of the river network. These incisions are used modern suspension flows, and the Western sector of the continental slope is an area of intensive development of landslides. Accordingly this part of the slope with regard to topography related to areas with high risk.

Key words: hazardous areas of the bottom, terrain, mud volcanoes, physical fields of the seabed and ocean floor.

About Catastrophic Collapses From The Glacier Devdorak

TAVASIEV R.A. Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russian Federation North Ossetian search and rescue group; National park «Alania» ...43

Voyenno-Gruzinskaya Highway connecting Europe and Asia through the Caucasus passes across Dariali Gorge where dangerous geological processes actively proceed. In article questions on catastrophic collapses from a glacier Devdorak, their location, the reasons, consequences and forecasts are considered.

Key words: Mount Kazbek, glacier Devdorak, Voyenno-Gruzinskaya Highway, catastrophic collapses of a glacier, stone and ice avalanche, volcanic gases, mudflows, breaks of lakes.

Ecological-Geomorphologic Safety Of The Projected Industrial Roads In Khibiny

BELYAEV Y.R., BREDIKHIN A.V. , LUKASHOV A.A. Lomonosov Moscow State University ...50

Possible intensification of mining in Khibiny mountains cause projecting of new industrial roads to maintain transport of apatite ores from mines. Before full-scale engineering-geological research started, natural and technological hazards assessment for possible variances of road tracing was accomplished. Assessment was based on the affecting of the projected roads by dangerous geological processes. Distribution and intensity of geological processes was investigated during previous years of fieldworks in Khibiny and by large-to-medium-scale geomorphologic mapping. The shortest variant of tracing through mountain valleys and passes characterizes with low level of geomorphologic safety. These variants lead to significant increase of the project cost due to necessity of the special engineering decisions in order to protect road from natural hazards during construction and exploitation. Variants of tracing outside and around mountains less expensive and much more safe, in spite of the longer distance of transportation.

Key words: geomorphologic safety, dangerous geological processes, Khibiny, avalanche, debris flow, slush flow, fluvial processes.

 

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